Wires are one or more string metal strands, 99% of which are made of copper metal and are protected by a plastic sheath called insulation. In today's world of modern technology, wires are one of the most widely used materials in the world. It is used around us in commercial, office and construction buildings, systems, machines, various industrial machines and thousands of other things. One of the most widely used cases of wires is in the electricity industry.
Wire is used to transfer electrical current from one point to another. Energy transmission in wires, like other similar products, is done by the internal part called the conductor. The conductor is the part of the electric wire that is responsible for transmitting electricity. Also, layers of polymer are placed on the conductor to prevent the conduction of electricity. This layer, which is called "insulation", is responsible for preventing the conduction of electric current.
The electrical wires in the power industry are introduced as follows in terms of production structure and type of conductor used in it:
3- Electric wire or multi-threaded conductor, regular or semi-spray Electric wire
What is a Electric wire?
To transmit electrical potential from one point to
another, electrical wires that conduct electricity are
used. The Electric wire is usually made of an electrical
conductor and an electrical insulator that is coated on
the conductor. Electric wire conductors are usually made
of copper or aluminum or their compounds. Copper
conduction is better than aluminum. So copper wires
perform better, although they are more expensive.
Electrical wire insulation is a plastic material whose
job is to provide electrical insulation of the wire with
electrical potential from its surroundings. Depending on
its application, electrical wires are available in a
variety of thicknesses and shapes.
What is the classification of electric wires in the
electricity industry in terms of production structure and
the type of conductor used in it?
Electrical wires in the power industry are classified as
follows in terms of production structure and type of
conductor used in it.
1- Electric wire or multi-threaded conductor or(NYAF) .
2- Electric wire or multi-threaded conductor, regular or
semi-spray Electric wire.
3-- conductor Single-stranded or electric wire or wired
electric wire (NYA).
The use of these three models of electric wire is used
depending on the place of use and the environmental
conditions and the type of project, etc., and the amount
of current that is to pass through the conductor used in
the electric wire.
What is electric wire numbering? What is the name of the
To use wires in different places, it should be noted that
the wires are numbered based on the thickness of the
copper used in them and are used in different places.
These numbers are generally as follows:
5/. - 75/. - 1 - 5/1 - 5/2 - ۴ - ۶ - ۱۰ - ۱۶ - ۲۵ - ۳۵ -
۵۰ - ۷۰ - ۹۵ - ۱۲۰ - ۱۵۰ - ۱۸۵ - ۲۴۰ - ۳۰۰ - ۴۰۰ – ۵۰۰
Also, wires in the electrical industry are known by
specific names that are defined as standard. These names
NYAF wire and NYA wire and NYIF wire under gypsum and Y
wire with a score of 0.75 for news alarm as well as G
wire with rubber cover and F wire for wet space and T
wire are for dry space.
What are the components of an electric wire?
A wire has two parts:
1- electric wire conductor:
The part that is the core of the wire is called the
conductor, which should be selected according to the
different voltages and currents according to the high
numbering and in consultation with experts.
2- Sheath (insulation) or Electric wire cover:
The part of the brain that encloses and protects the
conductor, as well as the external contact of the
conductor, insulates the electric wire Or they call it
electric wire coating.
Basically, electrical insulation material is made of
plastic or PVC.
What is the importance of color in electrical wiring and
according to what principles is it explained?
To use a electric wire, for example, in a building unit,
there are basically three models of conductors:
1- Phase conductor.
2- Neutral conductor.
3- protection system ground or earth conductor.
What is a phase wire or a phase conductor?
Phase wire can be considered the most dangerous wire in
a building's electrical circuit. Because the phase wire
carries the electric charge and transmits its electric
charge to them as soon as it comes in contact with the
conductive components, the phase is also called the
current-carrying wire. The phase is usually detectable
by black insulation. Of course, to display phase wire
other than black, any color other than white, green,
gray, and blue is used. In power plants, three wires
supply power to the consumer. These three power wires
are similar. But their voltage is phase different. The
implication of this sentence is that these three wires
have a potential difference, so as we have said before,
if we connect two of them to the two ends of one device,
that device will light up. The three-phase motor works
in the same way. Each of these wires is called a
single-phase power supply. The potential difference
between each of these wires is very high. For example,
the potential difference between each wire in an
out-of-town power supply system is 2,000 volts. These
four wires consist of three phases and a neutral. Each
phase has a potential difference of 380 volts relative
to each other and each phase has a potential difference
of 220 volts relative to the neutral wire.
What is a neutral wire or conductor?
The neutral wire is one of the most important wires in
the city's electricity supply system, which poses no
danger to the public and can be touched without being
electrocuted. As mentioned, the electric current is not
established until there is a return path to the source.
The neutral wire is actually the wire that is used to
make this circuit or the closed path, and it actually
returns the output current from the electrical device to
the generator. The neutral wire is usually identifiable
by the blue insulator.
What is earth wire or earth conductor?
Most electrical appliances have a metal body. Since
metals are conductors of electricity, there is always a
risk that they will be electrified. To solve this
problem and prevent possible problems, the earthing
system in the building and all the equipment with metal
body are used. To protect people, when working with
electrical appliances, the body of the device is usually
connected with a wire to the water pipe, where the water
pipe is in contact with the wet parts of the ground.
This wire is called earth wire. In fact, this wire must
also be connected to the earth well, but to save it, it
is connected to the water pipe. The wire is insulated
with green-yellow paints.
What is the difference between neutral and earth wires?
If electricity comes into contact with the body for any
reason, the fuse will go out because the earth wire with
resistance will transmit all the current entering the
house to the ground. That is, all of a sudden, a strong
current passes through the fuse and the fuse blows.
Earthing wire is only used for extra protection. Its
existence is not necessary, while the existence of zero
is necessary. In most countries, ground wire is included
in the circuit when wiring. So instead of two branches,
they use three branches, one of which is the earth wire.
What is the difference between single-wire and multi-wire
■ Multi-threaded electric wire, no matter how thick, is
still more flexible than wired wire. Where wiring needs to
be manipulated and soldered, it is more commonly used,
such as electronic circuits.
■ Multi-core electric wire is more resistant to the
fatigue phenomenon of materials and wire mesh is less
used when this phenomenon is problematic. The phenomenon
of material fatigue is caused by the passage of time and
climate change, and as a result, changes in the
structure of the material, which causes fractures and
small cracks in the metal, which later become larger and
the metal or conductor of the electrical wire breaks.
■ The cost of producing multi-stranded electric wires is
higher than that of electric wires, and they use wire
when the number of wires used is high and requires less
■ Wired wires are also used in applications other than
electronics and electricity, although they are rare, but
in mechanics they use wired wires to move or secure
■ The electrical resistance of a multi-stranded wire is
greater than that of a single-stranded wire, because the
cross-sectional area of a multi-stranded wire
increases despite the gaps between the strands.
■ Multi-threaded wire is more commonly used at high
frequencies, why? Because there is a phenomenon called
skin effect, or Skin Effect in wires, which causes a
loss of power in the wire. Of course, ordinary
multi-threaded wires do not greatly reduce the skin
effect, and to reduce this effect, they use a
multi-threaded cable called Litz or Litz Cable. Litz
cables are actually multi-threaded wires that are
insulated from each other with insulating coating and
increase the overall cross-sectional area for current