sheet metal is one of the most widely used products that has a
very colorful role in our lives. sheet metals are used in various
industries, buildings and equipment. Semi-finished sheet metal in
the industry covers a wide range of products. Sheet metal can be
classified according to its thickness and material. Of course,
this category can be changed due to the large number of sheet
metal factories in the world and the multiple standards of their
sheet metal is basically made by a process called rolling or
rolling. There are two types of rolling mills for sheet metal
production. A number of sheet metals are produced by hot rolling
and the rest by sheet metal by cold rolling.
Basically, the classification of sheet metal is based on the
thickness and material used in it. Due to the variety of
production and variety of alloys, more categories can be created
for sheet metal.
What is the classification of sheet metal in terms of
In these categories, we have indexed one of the most
famous German steel brands, the German din.
1- Thin sheet metal
■ Thick sheet metal thickness is from 0.1 to 2.75 mm.
2- Medium sheet metal
■ The average thickness of sheet metal is from 3 to 4.75
3- Thick sheet metal
■ Thick sheet metal thickness of 5 mm and above.
What is the classification of sheet metal in terms of the
material used in it?
sheet metals are divided into two general categories in
terms of the material used.
1- Iron sheet metal
These sheet metals include sheets that are made of
simple carbon steels, alloy steels, and stainless
2- Non-ferrous sheet metal
This type of sheet metal includes sheets that are made
of aluminum and copper and their alloys (sheets of brass
and bronze, zinc, tin and magnesium).
Metal-steel sheet classification:
1- Classification of metal-steel sheets based on
2- Metal-steel sheet classification based on appearance
What is the classification of metal-steel sheet based on
Chemically, metal-steel sheet has two general
1- sheet metal - Carbon steel: Due to the fact that in
the production of this type of sheet metal, its steel is
composed of carbon element, it is called carbon steel.
The classification of this group of sheet metals is
based on the percentage of carbon in it.
■ Low carbon steels
A sheet of metal with 0.25 percent carbon in its steel
is called a sheet.
■ Medium carbon steels
A sheet of metal with a steel content of 0.25 to 0.65
percent carbon is called a sheet metal.
■ Top Carbon steels
A sheet of metal with a carbon content of 0.65% or more
is called steel sheet.
2- sheet metal - alloy steels:
■ Low alloy steels
A sheet of metal that contains 0.1% alloy steel elements
is called steel sheet.
■ Medium alloy steels
A sheet of metal that contains 0.1 to 2.5 percent alloy
steel elements in its steel is called.
■ High alloy steels
A sheet of metal with an alloy steel content of 2.5% or
more is called steel sheet.
Division of sheet metal - steel in terms of appearance:
1- Ordinary black sheets
■ In this type of sheet metal, no polishing has been
done and a layer of oxide has covered its surface.
2- Glossy sheets
■ This type of sheet metal has a smooth and white
surface with no oxidation on its surface.
3- Galvanized sheets
■ The surface of this type of sheet metal is covered
with zinc metal.
4- White iron sheets
■ The surface of this type of sheet metal is covered
5- Colored sheets
■ This type of sheet metal has a surface with different
How are sheet metals produced?
sheet metal is created during a process called steel
rolling in the steel industry. There are two types of
rolling in the steel industry.
1- Hot rolling
■ The sheet metal formed during this rolling is called
hot sheet metal.
2- Cold rolling
■ The sheet metal that forms during this rolling is
called cold sheet metal.
In hot state, rolling machines turn metal ingots into
thick sheets. Medium-sized papers are also produced from
thick sheets in the hot state. Thin sheets are produced
in the cold state.
What is hot rolling or hot sheet ?
Hot sheet metals are sheets made from hot-rolled ingots.
Due to their dark and opaque appearance in the market,
these sheets are also known as black sheets and are
offered to the consumer market in both coil and sheet
thicknesses of 1.8 mm and more. The sheets that are made
by the hot rolling method are called black sheets.
What is cold rolling or cold sheet ?
Hot sheet metals are sheets that, after hot rolling,
undergo a cold rolling process and are also known as
oiled sheets in the market due to their shiny appearance
(which is the result of applying a layer of oil on their
surface). These sheets are available in 0.3 to 3 mm
thickness and are available in two modes: sheet and
coil. Oil-cold rolled sheets are called oiled sheets.
Standard sheet sheet metals available in the market:
The sheets available in the market are divided into the
following seven categories.
■ Oily sheets
■ Galvanized sheet
■ steel sheet
■ Colored sheets
■ Acid washing sheet
■ Black sheet
■ chequer plate
■ aluminium sheet
In fact, the naming of cold-rolled oil sheets is related
to its popular modification. Oiled sheets are easily
recognizable due to their shiny and shiny appearance.
Due to having the same appearance in the industry, this
type of sheet is used to produce accessories that need a
beautiful appearance. For these new products, for
example, the production of refrigerators and washing
machines can be mentioned. Oiled sheet metals are
produced in three main categories.
■ Semi-Stretch sheet ST12
■ Ordinary sheet ST14
■ Stretch sheet above ST13
Note: In fact, oiled sheets are the basis for the
production of galvanized non-ferrous and non-ferrous
sheet metals. The thickness of this product is from 30%
mm to 3 mm and they are produced in two standard widths,
which include 100 cm and 125 cm.
There are several ways to galvanize sheet metal. One of
the most economical but also the most economical is to
immerse the metal in molten pools to cover all surfaces
of the sheet. will find. In this method, due to the
presence of a small amount of impurities in the zinc, on
the sheet metals inside the pond, appendages are
created, which are called flowers. With the advent of
these flowers, the classification of galvanized sheet
metals is practically created.
This type of sheet metal is classified into three
models: Zero Spangle, Minimum Spangle and
RegularSpangle. The smaller they are, the better the
quality. The standard of galvanized sheet is different
and is divided according to the thickness, weight of the
zinc coating, the cooling rate of the sheet, the
adhesion, the appearance of the parts and so on.
■ Standard 1461 ASTM A123 ISO
■ AS / NZS 4680 standard
■ CAN / CSA G164 standard
The thickness of these sheets is from 0.18 to 6 mm. The
width of these sheets is produced in two sizes of 100
and 125 cm and with Koting 100, 120, 180, 220, 275.
Coatting The amount of zinc coating on the two surfaces
of the sheet and its unit is gr / m2. The higher the
amount of zinc metal on the surface of the sheets, the
higher the so-called sheet coating. Higher galvanized
sheets will have much better quality and will be
marketed as better quality. Chinese Koting sheets have
between 100 and 120 and Japanese, Indian, Korean, etc.
sheets up to 180 Koting.
In fact, steel is an alloy of iron with a carbon content
of less than two percent. If the available carbon is
less than 0.15%, it chooses the name of plain soft
carbon steel. It is used in nails, rivets and seamless
hub pipes. When the percentage of carbon is from 0.15 to
0.3, it is called low carbon. It is used in the
production of beams, round bars and springs. If the
amount of carbon alloy is from 0.3 to 0.6 percent, it is
called medium carbon, which is used for shaft,
crankshaft, spring, and if the alloy is above 0.6
percent, it is high in carbon and for saws, wrenches,
drills and so on. A screwdriver is used.
Steel sheets are available in two simple forms, carbon
and alloy, and the difference between the two types is
in the elements. Simple carbon steel consists of common
elements including silicon, manganese, sulfur and
phosphorus. By adding other alloys to this compound,
stainless steel is produced that has high properties. At
least 10.5 percent of chromium is needed to corrode
metals to form chromium oxide after combining with
oxygen in the air. Nickel, molybdenum and chromium are
also present in stainless steels, also known as
stainless steels, which make them resistant to
corrosion. A good feature of this sheet is that it is
fully recyclable and can be re-molded.
Steel sheets have significant properties such as
smoothness, non-rust or corrosion, gloss, coated,
anti-acid and so on. This product, like other sheets, is
supplied in rolls and sheets. The thickness of this
product is from 40% to 20 mm and it is 100 and 125 cm
wide. If the steel sheets are fabric, they are 200 x 100
and 250 x 125 cm.
As you can guess, the name of this product is derived
from the different colors used for it. The basis of this
product is galvanized sheet. This sheet is painted and
lined and placed inside the oven, turning into a colored
sheet. In the factory, after producing galvanized sheet,
it is washed twice with degreasing solution. They then
wash the top and bottom of the surface with water. In
the post-washing stage, it is dried by blowing hot air
and creating a product free of any impurities. For the
next step, a special chemical is applied to its surfaces
to prepare it for painting, which causes the paint to
adhere well to the sheet and not flake off.
The original paint is then applied to the sheet, which
is called a primer. After the bleaching step, the paint
is placed in the oven and must then be transferred and
stored for cooling. After cooling, the main paint, which
is made of polyester, polyvinylidene, fluoride, epoxy,
polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane, is rolled on the
sheet with a roller and placed in the oven until the
paint is completely cooked. Colored sheet colors include
white, blue, red, yellow, green, orange, brown, lemon,
purple, which are used for appliances such as stoves,
refrigerators, cabinets or metal industries,
construction industries and the transportation industry.
Acid washing sheet:
This type of sheet is very similar to oiled sheet and
hot rolled sheets are produced. During a special
process, all the coals on the surface of the product are
removed and the remaining impurities are removed with
the help of acid. The sheet is thickened by hot rolling
and its fats are removed with the help of hydrochloric
acid. Finally, after acid washing, the product is smooth
and slightly shiny, which is called acid washing sheet.
In a cable tray with a width of 500 or 600 mm, the
thickness of the sheet 1.5 or 2 mm or more must be used.
Meanwhile, the higher the height of the cable tray, the
thicker it becomes. For example, in a cable tray with a
height of 110 mm, the minimum thickness should be 2 mm.
The height of the cable tray is also made from 40 mm to
200 mm. Due to the changes in technology and the
increasing number of new technologies, the use of cable
trays allows you to update the features of a collection
as soon as possible due to the changes. Various
accessories and connections for cable trays can help us
make our project easier.
This product is cut in two forms, roll and sheet, and
the dimensions of the factory salted acid sheet include
1000 * 2000 mm and 1250 * 2500 mm. The weight of this
product is similar to hot (black) rolling sheets. This
product is used for oil and gas pipes, automotive
industry and shipbuilding. This acid-washing operation,
also known as flaking, makes the surface of the iron 250
times harder than steel.
Black sheet or hot rolled sheet:
Iron ore is divided into two categories, industry and
construction, and as mentioned at the beginning of the
text, it is prepared by two methods of cold rolling and
hot rolling. The hot rolling outlet is "black sheet" and
the name is derived from its appearance, which means
that the steel melts in the furnace at a very high
temperature, which is dark and opaque in appearance, and
this color tends to be black. . The slabs are heated in
kilns at a temperature of 1280 تا C to cut the thickness
between 1.2 and 16 mm and coiled. The length of this
product varies between one and 12 meters. The width of
this product is produced in four sizes of 100 and 125,
150 and 200 cm and its thickness is from 1.5 to 100 mm
and the standard of black sheet is known as ST37. The
dimensions of this product are more varied and vary from
2000 * 1000 mm to 12000 * 2000 mm.
This product is made of black sheet and hot rolled
sheet, which is shaped in a special way and shape, and
placed on it in forms such as oblique and oblique lines,
circular shape and تا to be stuck in the speed mode
(surface This sheet has prominent lines.). This product
is used on the floor of rooms, trucks and vans,
elevators and so on. Ribbed sheets are produced with a
thickness of 1.5 mm and 10 mm and in dimensions of 2 * 1
m, 6 * 1.5 and 6 * 2 m.
Aluminum, copper, and brass are also sheet metals that
do not fall into this category. But they are high
It is one of the most widely used types of sheets that
has been used in the world and in industries for a long
time. One of the reasons for the high use and mass
production of aluminum sheet is that it has flexibility,
high strength, shiny and clean appearance, and its price
is more appropriate and less than some other sheets. We
hope you find this article useful.NiruTavan Technical
and Engineering Complex welcomes your comments and
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